Art movements are collective titles given to you, sharing the same artistic ideals, style, technical approach or time frame.
There is no fixed rule that determines what constitutes an art movement. While artists associated with one movement may adhere to strict guiding principles, those belonging to another may have little in common.
Art movements are a historical convenience to group artists of a particular period or style so that they can get along in a certain context.
Art movements are often referred to as retrospective by art critics or historians, and their titles are often witty or sarcastic nicknames taken from a bad review.
It is basically a feature of Western Art to divide artists with similar interests or styles into Art Movements.
Art Movements is actually a development from the 20th century where there are more styles than any other period of art history.
- Prehistoric Art (~ 40,000-4,000 BC)
The origins of the history of art can be traced back to the Prehistoric period without written records. The earliest works developed from the Paleolithic era or the Old Stone Age in the form of rock carvings, engravings, paintings, images, sculptures and stone arrangements.
Art from this period was based on the use of natural pigments and stone carvings to create representations of objects, animals, and rituals that govern the existence of a civilization.
- Ancient Art (4,000 BC – 400 AD)
Ancient art was produced by advanced civilizations, in this case referring to those who had a built-in written language. These civilizations included Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and the Americas.
A work of art environment from this period varies depending on the civilization that produced it, but most arts serve similar purposes. One of the most famous works of ancient Mesopotamia is the Law of Hammurabi.
- Medieval Art (500-1400)
The Middle Ages, often referred to as the “Dark Ages”, marked a period of economic and cultural deterioration after the fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476. Most of the artworks produced in the first year of the era included strange images and wild scenes.
Art produced during this period gathered around the church. As the first millennium passed, more sophisticated and elaborately decorated churches emerged.
- Renaissance Art (1400-1600)
Renaissance Art focuses on nature and individuality, which are independent and self-confident thoughts of human beings such as painting, sculpture, and decorative art style. Although these ideals existed in the late Middle Ages, they developed in the 15th and 16th centuries in parallel with social and economic changes such as secularization.
The Renaissance reached its climax in Florence, Italy, largely due to various beliefs and philosophies emphasizing the human realm, the Medici, a wealthy merchant family who strongly supported art and humanism. Italian designer Filippo Brunelleschi and sculptor Donatello were important innovators during this period.
- Behaviorism (1527-1580)
Behavioral artists emerged from the ideals of Michelango, Raphael and other Renaissance artists, but their focus on style and technique outweighed the meaning of the subject. Generally, the works featured graceful, elongated limbs and small heads, as well as exaggerated details.
Instead of relying on the classical ideals of harmonious composition and linear perspective used by Renaissance predecessors, he gave more complex, stylized compositions.
- Baroque (1600-1750)
During the Baroque period, architectural works with extreme visual art were created. It was characterized by grandeur and wealth punctuated by an interest in expanding the human mind and global exploration. Baroque artists were complex in style.
Baroque paintings were characterized by drama, as seen in the iconic works of Italian painter Caravaggio and Dutch painter Rembrandt.
- Rococo (1699-1780)
Rococo art; It covered painting, architecture, and sculpture. Aesthetics offered a softer decorative art style compared to the exuberance of Baroque. Rococo featured works with the use of natural forms, asymmetrical designs, and subtle colors.
- Neoclassicism (1750-1850)
As the name suggests, the Neoclassical period was based on elements from classical antiquity. The archaeological remains of ancient civilizations discovered at that time in Athens and Naples were passionately attached to everything that happened in the past, and the artists sought to recreate great works of ancient art.
- Romanticism (1780-1850)
Romanticism encompasses a wide variety of disciplines, from painting to music and literature. The ideals found in each of these art forms reject the order, harmony, and rationality adopted in both classical art and Neoclassicism. Instead, Romantic artists emphasized the individual and imagination.
- Realism (1848-1900)
Probably the first modern art movement, Realism began in France in the 1840s. Realism was the result of multiple events: the anti-romantic movement in Germany, the rise of journalism, and the emergence of photography. Each of them sparked new interest in capturing everyday life just right.
- Art Nouveau (1890-1910)
Art Nouveau, which means “New Art“, tried to create a completely original movement free from imitation of the styles before it. This movement greatly influenced applied arts, graphics, and illustrations. He focused on the natural world characterized by long, sinuous lines and curves.
- Impressionism (1865-1885)
Impressionist painters tried to capture the instant impression of a particular moment. It was characterized by short, quick brushstrokes and an unfinished, sketch-like feel. Impressionist artists used modern life as their subject, rather than historical and mythological events, such as dance halls and sailboat racing.
- Post Impressionism (1885-1910)
Post-Impressionist painters worked independently rather than as a group, but every influential Post-Impressionist painter had similar ideals. They focused on subjective visions and symbolic, personal meanings rather than observations of the outside world. This is usually achieved with abstract forms.
- Expressionism (1905-1920)
Expressionism emerged as a response to increasingly conflicting worldviews and loss of spirituality. Expressive art sought to draw from within the artist, using the distortion of form and strong colors to showcase anxieties and raw emotions. Expressionist painters often sought inspiration beyond ethnographic museums to revisit Western art and indigenous traditions and tribal art, in their search for authenticity.
- Cubism (1907-1914)
Cubism was founded by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who rejected the idea that art should copy nature. They moved away from traditional techniques and perspectives; instead, they created radically fragmented objects through abstraction.
- Surrealism (1916-1950)
Surrealism created works of art from the Dada art movement that came across the mind in 1916. Surrealists condemned the rationalist mindset. They held this thought process responsible for events such as World War I and believed it suppressed imaginary thoughts.
- Abstract Expressionism (1940-1950)
Abstract Expressionism, shaped by the legacy of surrealism, emerged in New York after the Second World War. It is often referred to as the New York School or action picture.
- Op Art (1950-1960)
The Op art (short for “optical” art) movement, which increased with advances in science and technology as well as interest in optical effects and illusions, was initiated in 1955 with Le Mouvement, a group exhibition at Galerie Denise Rene.
- Pop Art (1950-1960)
Pop art is one of the most recognizable artistic developments of the 20th century. The movement moved away from the methods used in Abstract Expressionism and instead used everyday, ordinary objects to create innovative works of art that challenge consumerism and the mass media.
- Arte Povera (1960s)
Literally translating it into “poor art,” Arte Povera challenged modernist, contemporary systems by transferring ordinary materials into creations. The artists used earth, rocks, paper, rope and other earth elements to evoke a pre-industrial feel.
- Minimalism (1960s-1970s)
The minimalist movement emerged in New York, and a group of young artists began to question the overly impressive works of Abstract Expressionist artists. Minimalist art focused on anonymity, drawing attention to the significance of the works.
- Conceptual Art (1960s-1970s)
Conceptual art completely rejected previous art movements, and artists rewarded ideas about visual elements, creating art from performances, ephemeral and other forms.
- Contemporary Art (1970-Present)
The 1970s marked the beginning of contemporary art dating back to the present day. Various schools and smaller movements dominate this period.
Author: Mr. Article
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