The heart, which provides the whole body’s need for blood, also needs a good blood supply to function properly. The veins that supply blood to the heart are coronary arteries, and when these become blocked, a heart attack occurs. Obstruction often begins with the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, and other substances that form a plaque in the arteries that feed the heart. In some cases, these plaques may be ruptured and a clot may be added to the plaque that completely blocks blood flow. In this case, the nourishment of the heart muscle area supplied by the occluded coronary artery is disrupted and some or most of the heart muscle may be damaged depending on the occlusion time.
Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of heart attack. Substances such as fat and cholesterol accumulate in the artery walls responsible for blood flow to the heart and form structures called plaques. Plaques grow in the process, narrowing the vein. The narrowed artery causes reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. If one of the plaques cracks, a blood clot will form that can block the artery, causing a heart attack. One of the less common causes of heart attack is spontaneous coronary artery dissection, a condition in which one or more coronary arteries rupture.
What Happens During A Heart Attack?
Like all organs, the heart needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function. Blood vessels, known as coronary arteries, run above the heart muscle and supply it with the necessary oxygenated blood. A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery is suddenly blocked and stops blood flow to the heart muscle.
What are the risk factors for a heart attack?
All tobacco products, especially cigarettes and hookahs
High levels of bad cholesterol
Low levels of good cholesterol
Diabetes: Not producing enough of the hormone secreted by the pancreas (insulin) or not responding properly to insulin increases the risk of heart attack by causing the body’s blood sugar levels to rise.
Metabolic syndrome: This syndrome occurs in cases of obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. The metabolic syndrome picture greatly increases the likelihood of developing heart disease.
Obesity: Obesity is linked to high blood cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Even a reduction of 10 percent of your body weight can reduce the risk of heart attack.
Inactive life: It is known that the risk of diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol and heart attack increases especially in people who spend a long time at a desk and do not exercise regularly. A heart attack can be triggered when people with a sedentary lifestyle suddenly exercise heavily without medical supervision and take long and tiring trips. For this reason, it is very important for people working at a desk to walk for 30-45 minutes at least five days a week. It is safer in terms of heart health to prefer afternoon hours instead of cold hours of the morning for exercise.
45 for males and 55 for females
Drug use: The use of stimulant substances such as cocaine or amphetamines can trigger a spasm of the coronary arteries that can cause a heart attack.
Unhealthy diet (eating habits rich in saturated fatty acids): Heavy and salty food and excessive alcohol consumption are among the reasons that trigger a heart attack.
Having a history of heart disease in first degree relatives such as mother, father and siblings: It is of special importance that people with coronary heart disease, especially sudden and young deaths, do not start smoking and quit smoking if they do. It would be appropriate for people with this type of loss in their family to follow their blood pressure and, in case of an increase, to consult a heart disease specialist for the necessary treatment. In addition, the address that these people can apply to investigate the presence of other factors such as diabetes and high cholesterol that play a role in coronary heart disease is again cardiology, that is, heart disease centers.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Heart Attack?
The main symptom seen in a heart attack is chest pain, also called heart pain by patients. With severe pain in the chest; Loss of consciousness may occur with nausea, vomiting, sweating and sometimes fainting. Although heart pain signals a heart attack, some patients experience a pain in the upper abdomen that hits the stomach. In this case, it may be ignored by the patient, considering that this discomfort is related to the stomach. Pain in heart attack is often; It is a pain that starts in the form of pain, burning, squeezing in the chest and descends to the left arm towards the little finger and spreads to the neck.
Cold sweat accumulates on the forehead. Sometimes a heart attack starts with very sudden and severe symptoms and can be diagnosed easily. However, for many people, the event begins with a slow and mild pain or discomfort, and when it is understood what is happening, it may be too late for the patient. The pain increases with movement, decreases while resting, but does not go away. Pain usually lasts longer than 20 minutes. Along with the pain, there may be cold sweats and nausea.
In some people, the symptoms can be very subtle. Especially elderly patients, diabetic patients, female patients and patients with a history of heart failure may have almost no pain and may have a heart attack only with complaints of shortness of breath and cold sweating. In some patients, heart attack pain can be confused with stomach ulcer or pancreatitis pain.
In summary, some of the most common heart attack warning signs are:
Chest pain: An unpleasant feeling of pressure, pain, numbness, tightness, fullness or pain in the chest. This discomfort can spread to the arms, neck, chin or back. Dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, or feeling anxious nausea, indigestion, vomiting are other signals.
What İs The Emergency Response in Case Of A Heart Attack?
The most important point in a heart attack that occurs due to sudden cardiovascular occlusion, as soon as symptoms such as heart pain appear, it is imperative that the person apply to a fully equipped hospital and get health care. Because, on average, half of deaths due to heart attack occur within the first hour after a heart attack begins. As a matter of fact, if the heart attack is started early until the first aid, the treatment methods that open the occluded vasculature can be applied as soon as possible and the damage to the heart is prevented. The important thing in the intervention in the hospital is the rapid diagnosis and the appropriate intervention.
If person is alone during a heart attack;
• There is no maneuver that a person can make to open the blocked vein during a heart attack.
• First of all, when the pain begins, the patient should call the relatives by phone and inform the situation.
• The door of the location should be left ajar. Thus, the work of the person who will come to help becomes easier.
• Strong cough can temporarily increase blood flow. Although the probability of dislodging a newly started clot is very low, the person should cough strongly by closing their nostrils.
• If there is aspirin at home, it should be taken with a glass of water.
• Apart from this, nothing should be eaten or drunk.
• The window should be opened to allow oxygen to enter the room.
• Help should be expected by lying down or sitting down. Absolutely should not be standing. Because a patient who comes to the hospital with a heart attack should not have a trauma problem. If the person falls and hits his head, treatments for a heart attack may not be possible due to a blow to the head.
• Exercise should not be done to reduce pain.
• Never go under cold or hot water. Cold water is especially dangerous in such situations. Because it constricts the heart vessels and can cause non-occluded vessels to narrow.
If a person has had a heart attack right next to you;
• If you do not have health experience, do not intervene with someone who has had a heart attack, or give other patients or your own heart medication.
• Transfer the patient to the nearest fully equipped hospital by requesting an ambulance assistance immediately.
• In the meantime, put the person suffering from the heart attack to a suitable place.
• Try to get more blood flow to the heart by lifting your feet above the level of the heart.
• Help, such as loosening the tight clothing, loosening the tie.
• The important thing is to transport the patient to a hospital where examinations and treatments can be done on site and appropriately.
Author: Mr. Article
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